Most mesenchymal tumours occurring in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are classified into the gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) category arising from the interstitial cell of Cajal or its precursor. They must be differentiated from other mesenchymal tumours as originally lipomas, liposarcomas, leiomyomas, true leiomyosarcomas, desmoid tumours, schwannomas, and peripheral nerve sheath tumours were confounded together as GISTs .
Since the discovery of activating KIT mutations in GISTs in 1998, separation from other potential mimics of mesenchymal tumours has markedly differed the diagnosis, management, treatment and prognosis. GISTS express predominantly the presence of activating mutations in the KIT (CD117) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) genes , , , ,  except for paediatric GIST .
GISTs has approximate incidence of around 1/100 000 per year . The median age is around 60–65 years . Rare occurrence in children is marked by gastric multicentre location, absence of KIT/platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations, female predominance, and possible lymph node metastases  GISTs are predominantly in the stomach (60–70%) followed by the small bowel (20–30%) and approximately 5–10% in the colon/rectum while localisation in the oesophagus is rare (<5%) , , , . Extragastrointestinal GISTs can be present in the mesentery, omentum, and retroperitoneum .
The use of the TNM classification is limited and rarely recommended in clinical practice. Prognostic factors are the mitotic rate, tumour size and tumour site , , In general, gastric GISTs have better prognosis than the intestinal GISTs.
Rectal GISTs account for 0.6% of all rectal neoplasia . Small hard nodules, <1 cm in diameter, are found incidentally during digital rectal examination but large tumours have clinical similarities with rectal adenocarcinoma, such as rectal bleeding, constipation, and abdominal discomfort , , .
The treatment for localized rectal GISTs remains surgical resection , in spite of some promising results with preoperative neoadjuvant therapy reported in tumour shrinkage thus enhancing sphincter preserving surgery.
To write a critical systematic review regrouping the available literature and evaluate Rectal GISTs in the KIT era.
To avoid duplication  and publication bias, we submitted details of our systematic review to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York. Publication on the database of the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) , ,  bears registration number CRD42017058070.
This systematic review will be carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement . The following electronic bibliographic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, PubMed. The search strategy will include only terms relating to Rectal GISTs. There might be language restrictions and will be eliminated if no translation is available except for English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, Ukrainian. Searches will be re-run just before the final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion.
Manuscripts to be included are cohort studies, case series, and randomised controlled trials, letter to editors, systematic reviews and case-control studies. One of the points of interest should be mentioned in included articles. Duplicate articles, irrelevant studies, published papers that do not provide data of interest will be excluded.
Four review authors will screen independently to identify studies that potentially meet the inclusion criteria using the search strategy and those from additional sources. The full text of these potentially eligible studies will be extracted and evaluated for eligibility by four review team members. Any interrogation over the eligibility of a particular study will be solved through discussion with a fifth reviewer. The data will be recorded on a secure web based database.
Authors will be contacted to request missing data. Revision and analysis will be made to evaluate whether missing data in some manuscripts should be included in the database.
The use of Cochrane tool for risk of bias (RoB) will be considered. The study investigator will verify discrepancies or unusual patterns and will classify the review as low risk of bias only if all domains are considered adequate.
If considered appropriate, the software RevMan 5.3 may be used to combine the results. Homogeneity in data collection will allow the use of fixed-effect model. Narrative synthesis of the findings from the included studies will be carried out if meta-analyses cannot be undertaken. The synthesis will be structured around the molecular pathogenesis of rectal GISTs, target population characteristics; risk assessment, type of outcome, prognostic factors, staging procedures, treatment and follow up.
The review on rectal GISTs can improve visibility and draw a consensus on the up to date management of this rare challenging pathology and will be a valuable reference for medical professionals. A peer-reviewed journal will be selected for publication in English language. An abstract will be submitted to the European Colorectal Congress in December and at the annual Swiss surgical congress.
The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York acknowledged that this systematic review is within the register scope. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at various national and international conferences.
This review has received no funding from any agency in the public, commercial or non-for profit sectors.
SN and NP designed of the study. SN wrote the manuscript. AC, NG, GZ carried out analysis and combination of the protocol according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. AC, NG, GZ, SN and NP performed a critical revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
There are no conflicts of interest for the authors conducting this review.
Dr S.P Naiken, M.D, Spécialiste FMH surgery.
F.E.B.S (EBSQ Gen.Surg)
MAS chirurgie Viscérale (UNIGE)
Publication on the database of the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Ongoing Systematic Reviews, http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) [23–25] bears registration number CRD42017058070.
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